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Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Reference List Guidelines:

  • The list of references is created on a separate page.
  • The heading is centred at the top of the page and is titled "References".
  • Each entry is in alphabetical order according to the last name of the author or editor. If there is no author, list according to the first main word of the title.
  • Arrange reference entries with the same first author or the same authors in the same order, chronologically by year of publication, with the earliest year first.
  • If two or more works have identical authors and the same publication date, arrange the references alphabetically by title and put a lower case letter a,b,c and so forth immediately after the year of publication, in both the reference list entry and in text citation.
  • Each entry begins flush with the left hand margin. Use a hanging indent for subsequent lines.
  • Entries are in double line spacing, with double line spacing between references. 
    • Note: This is an APA Style requirement - check with your lecturer on how they would like your References spaced.

End references

Every in-text citation should have a corresponding citation in the end-text reference list. Every work in the end-text reference list should have a corresponding in-text citation. Personal communications are an exception to this rule.

The end-text reference list provides full citation details of a work based on the following four elements required for refererencing:

  1. Who: who produced the work (i.e. details of the author)
  2. When: when was the work produced (i.e. date of publication)
  3. What: what is the work we are referring to (i.e. title of the work)
  4. Where: where did this work come from (i.e. publisher or online source)

This means that all end-text reference list citations have the following format as their underlying structure:

Author, A. A. (year). Title. Source.

Place of Publication

For books published within the United States, follow the name of the city with the two official US postal service abbreviations. For all other publications, follow the name of the city with the name of the country. End with the name of the publisher. For example:

  • New York, NY: Harper & Row.
  • Washington, DC: Author
  • Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • London, England: Wildwood House.
  • Melbourne, Australia: Puffin.
  • Cambridge, England: Author




Reference Elements

Learn about the four reference elements of an APA Style reference: the author, date, title, and source.

Reference List

Learn how to write a References section, including how to ensure entries are accurate, complete, consistently styled, and up to date.


© 2016 American Psychological Association.

Alphabetizing the Reference List

Learn how to arrange entries in the reference list, including how to alphabetize multiple works by the same author, the same author and date of publication, different authors with the same surname, group authors, or no author.


© 2016 American Psychological Association.

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Sample Reference List

Edith Cowan University acknowledges and respects the Nyoongar people, who are the traditional custodians of the land upon which its campuses stand and its programs operate.
In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Nyoongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.