We run workshops on referencing each semester on Joondalup campus, Mount Lawley campus, and online. For workshop times, please visit the workshop booklet:
Referencing is a standardised way to give credit to the source of your ideas in your work. This is an essential part of academic integrity, and you will be required to reference in most of your assignments throughout your degree, including oral reports and presentations.
You must include a reference for any work you use, including (but not only) when you:
Referencing also serves as evidence for your opinions. If you can back up your opinion with credible scholarly evidence, then your opinion in turn will be more credible.
A reference is made up of two parts:
The exact form your reference takes depends on the referencing style you use and the type of source you are referencing. This guide explains in more detail how to format a variety of sources in APA 7th style referencing.
Please note that the closed captions might obscure some of the detail in this video. If viewing the video with subtitles, we recommend you click on the diagonal arrow on the video toolbar to watch the video in Panopto.
The following tutorial will help you learn to avoid plagiarism and incorporate sources into your writing appropriately.
APA style referencing is an author-date citation style. The 7th edition is new for this year, so even if you are familiar with APA style, take some time to look at this guide to understand the changes.
This guide is intended for coursework students. Please note that some specific assignment requirements for your units may differ from details provided in this guide. Check your assignment instructions and ask your unit coordinator, as you may be penalised for not conforming.
APA style has been adopted by the majority of courses at ECU. Some courses will follow a different style. Most Law units require adherence to the Australian Guide to Legal Citation referencing style. At postgraduate level, other styles might be preferred in specific disciplines, as advised by your course coordinator or supervisor. See other referencing styles in this guide for details about these other styles.
For help with APA style formatting and grammar guidelines, visit the APA Style website or APA's Academic Writer site:
The 7th edition of the APA Style manual was released in 2020. Some external referencing resources you find (particularly Microsoft Word's referencing function) still use APA 6th style, and have not updated to the current version. There have been significant changes between the two versions, so make sure your references match the examples on this page. If you want to know what's changed, download the What's New in APA 7th? PDF here:
Citation: The in-text reference that gives brief details (author, date, page number) of the source you are quoting or referring to. Citations correspond with the end-text reference in your reference list.
DOI: digital object identifier. A string of characters that uniquely identifies a particular article, book, data set, etc. A DOI begins with the number 10, and in APA 7th referencing it should be formatted as a URL. For example: https://doi.org/10.1109/emr.2019.2914612 (the URL and the non-URL version of any DOI will be the same, so this is equivalent to 10.1109/emr.2019.2914612).
Sentence case: a style of capitalisation used in APA referencing. Most words are lowercase, except: the first word of the title, the first word of any subtitles, proper nouns (e.g. places and people), and acronyms. For example: The future of work: An Australian perspective.
Title case: a style of capitalisation used in APA referencing. Capitalise any major or content words, as well as the first word of the title, the first word of any subtitles, and any word with four or more letters. For example: Hanging Out, Messing Around, Geeking Out: Living and Learning With New Media.
Information in this guide is based on:
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).
Edith Cowan University acknowledges and respects the Noongar people, who are
the traditional custodians of the land upon which its campuses stand and its programs
In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Noongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.