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Referencing: Interviews/Personal communications

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

General format for in-text references (only)

Personal communications may be letters, memos, interviews, telephone conversations, lecture material or some electronic communications (e.g., email or messages from non-archived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards). As these personal communications are not recoverable, they are not included in the reference list – they are cited in-text only. You must provide the initials and surname of the communicator, as well as a date that is as exact as possible.

Example:

In-text citation:
A. S. Parkinson (personal communication, May 15, 2004) notes that . . .

Example:

In-text citation:
This is a commonly used technique within the therapeutic setting (T. W. Willis, personal communication, August 10, 2002).

Examples showing how to reference personal communications

Source                                     In-text                                        End-text      
Email
(M. T. Browne, personal communication, November 15,
2004). 
As these are not available to the reader, they are not included in the reference list.
Email
 R. Niesten (personal communication, June 12, 2008)
 

Do not include personal communications in the reference list.

Interview (S. Stewart, personal communication, December 25, 2008)

Do not include personal communications in the reference list.

Things to remember when referencing interviews/personal communication

A remark quoted from a formal or informal conversation is acknowledged by an explanatory note following the quotation.

Example:

In-text citation:
(K. A. W. Crook, personal communication, April 18, 1971).

The same referencing style would apply when acknowledging a tape, a personal letter, or a transcript of a speech or dialogue. These references are not included in the reference list. In transcribing conversation or dialogue it is customary to mark the beginning of each speaker’s contribution by starting it on a new line. Most publishers set conversation in single quotation marks, indented. Scripts, however, do not use quotation marks for speech. When a speech that is quoted extends over more than one paragraph, the quotation marks are repeated at the beginning of each paragraph, but the final quotation marks appear only at the end of the whole quotation – each individual paragraph is left open to indicate the continuity of the quotation. Where one speaker quotes another, then the double and single quotation marks are alternated.

Example:

“What did Sue tell John?”
“She said, ‘Get lost’.”

 Note. If any part contains matter not quoted, the final period comes outside the quotation marks.

 Example:

He replied, “She said, ‘Get lost’”. 

Note. In general, periods are not duplicated, except where they are differently distinguished.

Example:

Did he hear the Speaker call, “Order!”?
He said, “Do you think I am mad?”.

End-text reference:
Personal communications are not included in the end-text references.