Skip to main content

Referencing: Reference Works

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Reference Works: General Reference Format

Entry in a print reference work: 
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (pp. xxxx). Location: Publisher.
Note: If there are no page numbers, the chapter or entry title is sufficient.
Entry in an online reference work with a DOI:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxxx).
Entry in an online reference work without a DOI:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Title of referecne work (pp. xxxx). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Reference Works: Sample References

Source In-text References End-text References
(reference lists require hanging indent)
Reference work: Unknown author or editor
(Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 2005)
Note. In-text the title is italicised and in title case.   
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). ( 2005).Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
If the online version refers to a print edition, include the edition after the title, for example:
Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from
Note. In the end-text reference the tile is italicised and in sentence case.
Print dictionary: Editor  (VandenBos, 2007)
VandenBos, G., R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Entry in a print encyclopedia: No editors

(Robinson, 1994)


Robinson, A. (1994). The principles of genetics and heredity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (vol. 19, pp. 699-740). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Entry in an online encyclopedia: One editor

(Purcell, 2010)

Purcell, L. (2010). Abdominal injuries. In L. J. Micheli (Ed.), Encyclopedia of sports medicine (pp. 2-4). doi:10.4135/9781412961165.n1
Entry in an online encyclopedia: Two editors

(Pulkkinen, 2001)

Pulkkinen, L. (2001). Antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social &  behavioral sciences. Retrieved from
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
(DSM-5) - Entire Book
(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual  of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Note: There is no DOI  for the entire book.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
(DSM-5) - Online
(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Cautionary statement for forensic use of DSM-5. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). doi:10.1176/appi.books. 9780890425596.744053
Note: Each section has a DOI

Reference Works: Things to Remember

Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.
Italics: Only the title of the reference work should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter or an entry in a reference work the title of the chapter should not be in italics.
Capitalization: In your reference list the first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.
Publication details: For books published within the United States, follow the name of the city with the two official US postal service abbreviations. For all other publications, follow the name of the city with the name of the country. End with the name of the publisher.
  • New York, NY: Harper & Row.
  • Washington, DC: Author
  • Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • London, England: Wildwood House.
  • Melbourne, Australia: Puffin.
  • Cambridge, England: Author
Note: If the author and the publisher are the same, write "Author" as the name of the publisher.

Reference Works





Reference Work and Reference Work Entry

Learn how to format references for whole reference works and entries in reference works, including dictionaries and encyclopedias, available in print, online, or through mobile apps.

What is a DOI?

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique code used to identify content and provide a persistent link to a document on the internet. A publisher assigns a DOI when a journal article is published and made available electronically.

Include a DOI for all electronic publications at the end of your reference, if one exists. If a DOI doesn't exist, then include the URL.

Display the DOI in either of the following formats. The active URL link is preferred to the shorter form, but either formats are acceptable for APA style:


For further information, refer to Crossref's display guidelines: