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Referencing: Web sources

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

APA Style Central - Web sources

Website Reference

Learn how to format references for any material found on websites, including lecture notes or PowerPoint slides.


© 2016 American Psychological Association.

Examples showing how to reference web sources

Source                                     In-text                                        End-text      
Webpage: With author  (McAuliffe, 2012)
McAuliffe, A. (2012). Helping people live their dream. Retrieved from =23085
Webpage: No author

("New Child Vaccine," 2001)
Cite in text the first few words of the title and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.

New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21,
2001, from
When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry. When the content of a webpage is subject to change include the retrieval date.
Webpage: No author or date

(“Compare iPhone Models,” n.d.)

Note. Use double quotation marks around the title.
Compare iPhone models. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Blog post  (Borkowski, 2013)          
Borkowski, L. (2013, September 20). CDC classifies three antibiotic
resistant bacteria as urgent threats [Blog post]. Retrieved from
Note. The title is not italicised in the end-text reference.
Blog comment

 (MiddleKid, 2007)

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites
and consequences of partitioning your mind  [Blog comment]. Retrieved from
Podcast: Known producer

(Saunders, 2007)

Saunders, A. (Producer). (2007, November 17). The architecture of diplomacy
[Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
Podcast: No known producer

(Szoke, 2012)

Szoke, S. (2012, September 12). The anti-racism strategy [Audio podcast]. Retrieved
Wiki (“Psychometric Assessment,”
Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). In The Psychology Wiki. RetrievedJanuary 28, 2007, from
Wikipedia  ("Stress Testing," 2008)
Stress testing. (2008). Retrieved October 15, 2008, from Wikipedia:
Note. Include the retrieval date if the content cited is likely to be changed or updated.
Facebook Note

(American Red Cross, 2009)

American Red Cross. (2009, November 2). Red Cross workers in American Samoa: 
          2 stories [Facebook note]. Retrieved from

 (Obama, 2009)

Obama, B. [BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative 
         to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: 
         [Tweet]. Retrieved from

Things to remember when referencing web sources

What to reference: You should only reference what you can actually see on the page in question. If the web page is part of a section in a website then identify the website/organisation and the relevant section.
Italics: Italicise titles of reports and other documents that stand alone.  DO NOT italicise the titles of blog posts, online forum messages, blog comments, status updates, and so forth
Web page with no author: If the author is not identified, start the reference with the document title. Cite in-text the first few words of the
reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.

Web page with no date: If no year is available, use ‘n.d.’ (meaning “no date”), both in the in-text citation and end-text reference.

URL: There is no full stop after the URL
Retrieval date: Include the retrieval date if the content cited is likely to be changed or updated.