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Referencing: Web Sources

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Web Sources: Sample References

Source                                     In-text Reference                             End-text Reference
(reference lists require hanging indent)
Webpage: With author  (McAuliffe, 2012)
McAuliffe, A. (2012). Helping people live their dream. Retrieved from =23085 &KeyWords=budgeting
Webpage: No author

("New Child Vaccine," 2001)

Note: Cite in text the first few words of the title and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.

New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21,2001, from
Note: When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry. When the content of a webpage is subject to change include the retrieval date.
Webpage: No author or date

(“Compare iPhone Models,” n.d.)

Note. Use double quotation marks around the title.
Compare iPhone models. (n.d.). Retrieved from
Blog post  (Borkowski, 2013)          
Borkowski, L. (2013, September 20). CDC classifies three antibiotic resistant bacteria as urgent threats [Blog post]. Retrieved from
Note. The title is not italicised in the end-text reference.
Blog comment

 (MiddleKid, 2007)

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind  [Blog comment]. Retrieved from
Podcast: Known producer

(Saunders, 2007)

Saunders, A. (Producer). (2007, November 17). The architecture of diplomacy [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
Podcast: No known producer

(Szoke, 2012)

Szoke, S. (2012, September 12). The anti-racism strategy [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
Wiki (“Psychometric Assessment,”
Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). In The Psychology Wiki. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from
Wikipedia  ("Stress Testing," 2008)
Stress testing. (2008). Retrieved October 15, 2008, from Wikipedia: http//
Note. Include the retrieval date if the content cited is likely to be changed or updated.
Facebook Note

(American Red Cross, 2009)

American Red Cross. (2009, November 2). Red Cross workers in American Samoa: 2 stories [Facebook note]. Retrieved from

 (Obama, 2009)

Obama, B. [BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: [Tweet]. Retrieved from

Web Sources: Things to Remember

What to reference:
You should only reference what you can actually see on the page in question. If the web page is part of a section in a website then identify the website/organisation and the relevant section.
Italicise titles of reports and other documents that stand alone.  Do not italicise the titles of blog posts, online forum messages, blog comments, status updates, and so forth
Web page with no author:
If the author is not identified, start the reference with the document title. Cite in-text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.
Web page with no date:
If no year is available, use ‘n.d.’ (meaning “no date”), both in the in-text citation and end-text reference.
There is no full stop after the URL
Retrieval date:
Include the retrieval date if the content cited is likely to be changed or updated.

Web Documents

Referencing Web Documents.

Where you have downloaded or other wise accessed a document (.doc, .pdf, .rtf etc) from a website, reference the document in the format that most suits the type of document, e.g. Report, Brochure, then provide the retrieval statement (i.e. the url web address). 

This meets the general format of all APA references that provides details of who produced the work, when the work was produced, what is the work we are referring to and where did this work come from.

Website Reference





Website Reference

Learn how to format references for any material found on websites, including lecture notes or PowerPoint slides.

Blog Post Reference





Blog Post Reference

Learn how to format references for blog posts, including those published by authors using real names, user names, or a combination of both.

Social Media Reference





Social Media Reference

Learn how to format references for social media material, including pages and updates from Twitter, Facebook, and Google+.

Electronic Sources & Locator Information





Electronic Sources and Locator Information

Learn how to use the two types of electronic retrieval information found in references, digital object identifiers (DOIs) and uniform resource locators (URLs), including how to cite documents retrieved from research databases and websites.