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Referencing: Books

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

General format for end-text references

Book Reference

Learn how to format references for whole books, including both authored books and edited books.


© 2016 American Psychological Association.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Chapter in an edited book:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (#th ed., pp. xx-xx). Location: Publisher.

Citing references in-text

Citing References in Text

Learn how to cite references in the text, including how to implement the basic formats, cite multiple works, achieve clarity, and format references with missing author and/or date information.


© 2016 American Psychological Association.

Book Chapter Reference - tutorial

Book Chapter Reference

Learn how to format references for chapters in edited books, meaning those books where each chapter is written by a different author (cite the whole book if the same author has written all chapters).


© 2016 American Psychological Association.

Examples showing how to reference books

Source                                     In-text                                        End-text      
Book: One author (Ezzy, 2002)        
Ezzy, D. (2002). Qualitative analysis: Practice and innovation.
Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Book: Two authors
(Ethaugh & Rathus, 1995)

Cite both authors every time. 

Etaugh, C., & Rathus, S. (1995). The world of children. Orlando, FL:
Holt, Rinehart & Winston.    

Book: Three, four, or five authors

First mention:
(Quinlan, Bohle, & Lamm, 2010)
Subsequent mention:
(Quinlan et al., 2010)
Quinlan, M., Bohle, P., & Lamm, F. (2010). Managing occupational
health and safety: A multidisciplinary approach (3rd ed.). South Yarra, Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.
Book: Six or seven authors

(Hoffnung et al., 2013)

Hoffnung, M., Hoffnung, R. J., Seifert, K. L., Burton Smith, R., Hine, A.,
Ward, L., & Pause, C. (2013). Lifespan development: A chronological approach (2nd Australasian ed.). Milton, Australia: Wiley.
Book: Eight or more authors
(Loxey et al., 2004)
Loxey, W., Toumbourou, J. W., Stockwell, T., Haines, B., Scott, K.,
Godfrey, C.,  . . . Williams, J. (2004). The prevention of substance use, risk and harm in Australia: A review of the evidence. Canberra, Australia: Department of  Health and Ageing. 
List the first six authors, then an ellipsis (i.e. three spaced dots), then the last author in the reference.
Book: Corporate author (British Pharmacopoeia Commission, 2011)
British Pharmacopoeia Commission. (2011). British
Pharmacopoeia . London, England: Stationery Office.
Book: No author
(The Bluebook, 2005, p. 89)
Note. Use the title in the Author position. Use Title case,  and put it in italics). 
The bluebook: A uniform system of citation (18th ed.). (2005).
Cambridge,  MA: Harvard Law Review Association.
Note. In the end-text reference the title is italicised and in sentence case.   
Book: Author referred to by another author

Beaty (cited in Gibbs, 1981, p. 73) asserts . . .

Gibbs, G. (1981). Teaching students to learn. Milton Keynes, England:
Open University Press.
Note. Where you have quoted an author referred to by the author whose work you actually read, the reference list will show only the name and title of the work you actually read.
Book: No date

 (Southey, n.d.)

 Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. London, England: Blackie.
Book: Work in a language other than English

(Traversa, 1981)

Traversa, V. P. (1981). Parola e pensiero: Introduzionealla lingua
Italiana moderna [Word and thought: An introduction to modern Italian language] (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Book: Translator

(Genet, 1966, p. 61)

Genet, J. (1966). The balcony (2nd ed.). (B. Frechtman,Trans.).            London,England: Faber.
Note. Name the translator or editor only in the end-text reference
Book: Author as publisher
(American Psychological  Association, 2001)
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual
of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.
Book: Edited
(Cunningham & Turner,
Cunningham, S., & Turner, G. (Eds.). (2002). The media in Australia.
Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Book: Title includes the
title of another work

(Chitham, 1998) 

Chitham, E. (1998). The birth of “Wuthering Heights”: Emily Brontë
at work. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan.
Book: Edition of a book
(Avis, 1999)
Avis, H. (1999). Drugs and life (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw
Chapter in an edited book

(Mandler, 1993, p. 41)

Mandler, G. (1993). Thought, memory, and learning: Effects of
emotional stress. In L. Goldberger & S. Bregnitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (2nd ed., pp. 40-55). New York, NY: The Free Press.
Electronic Book: EBL ebook library
(Prior & Glaser, 2006, p. 24)
Prior, V., & Glaser, D. (2006). Understanding attachment and
attachment disorders: Theory, evidence and practice. Retrieved from
Provide the URL for the online library homepage.
Electronic Book: Ebrary ebook library
 (Bonavita, 2011, p. 24)
Bonavita, H. V. (2011). Negotiating identities: Constructed selves and
others. Retrieved from
Provide the URL for the online library homepage.

Things to remember when referencing books

Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.
Italics: Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.
Capitalization: In your reference list the first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.
Publication details: For books published within the United States, follow the name of the city with the two official US postal service abbreviations. For all other publications, follow the name of the city with the name of the country. End with the name of the publisher.
New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Washington, DC: Author
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
London, England: Wildwood House.
Melbourne, Australia: Puffin.
Cambridge, England: Author
Note. If the author and the publisher are the same, write "Author" as the name of the publisher.
In-text citations (2 or more works):
Order two or more authors cited within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list. Separate references with a semicolon (;).
Example: (Cooper & Carver, 2012; Douziech, Hellweg, & Verones, 2016; Pandey, Shukla, & Habibi, 2015)
Order two or more works by the same author by the year of publication.
Example: (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, 2013)
Identify works by the same author (or same two or more authors), with the same publication date, by the suffixes a, b, c, etc. after the year. Repeat the year each time. 
Example: (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c)