"An experimental design that does not meet all requirements necessary for controlling influences of extraneous variables. Often, random assignment of participants [is] not possible."
Edith Cowan University acknowledges and respects the Noongar people, who are
the traditional custodians of the land upon which its campuses stand and its programs
In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Noongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.