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Referencing: Website reference (pages, blogs, social media etc)

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Website reference: General Reference Format

When referencing information from a website, you need to determine the type of information and format. Any information from a website should also be carefully evaluated to ensure that the information is from a credible source. You should only reference what you can actually see on the page in question. If the web page is part of a section in a website then identify the website/organisation and the relevant section.

General Reference Format:

Author (year). Title of document [Format]. Retrieved from http://xxxx

  • Documents that stand alone: reports and other online publications or documents (a description is only provided if needed to assist in identifying the type of information and format, such as fact sheet or brochure, if not part of the title). Often the author is a corporate author (e.g. organization or government department), rather than personal author. Title is in italics.
  • Information sources such as blog posts, blog comments, online forums (a description is required) and information on a web page that is not a stand alone document or publication. Title is not italicized. Provide a more specific date for content that is published more frequently, such as blog posts, otherwise provide the year only. Provide a retrieval date for references if the content is likely to be changed or updated. 

Sample References

Source                                     In-text Reference                             End-text Reference
(reference lists require hanging indent)
Web page: Author, no date (American Psychological Association, n.d.)

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). About APA. Retrieved from

Web page: Author, date (British Society for Nanomedicine, 2012) British Society for Nanomedicine. (2012). What is nanotechnology and what is nanomedicine? Retrieved from
General mention of an entire website KidsPsych is an interactive website for children ( General mention of an entire website should be included in text, but does not need a reference list entry. i.e. only specific content on a website requires a reference list entry.
Blog post  (Borkowski, 2013)          
Borkowski, L. (2013, September 20). CDC classifies three antibiotic resistant bacteria as urgent threats [Blog post]. Retrieved from
Note. The title is not italicized in the end-text reference.
Blog comment

 (MiddleKid, 2007)

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind  [Blog comment]. Retrieved from
Podcast: Known producer

(Saunders, 2007)

Saunders, A. (Producer). (2007, November 17). The architecture of diplomacy [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Podcast: No known producer

(Szoke, 2012)

Szoke, S. (2012, September 12). The anti-racism strategy [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
Wiki (“Psychometric Assessment,”
Psychometric assessment. (n.d.). In The Psychology Wiki. Retrieved January 28, 2007, from
Wikipedia  ("Stress Testing," 2008)
Stress testing. (2008). Retrieved October 15, 2008, from Wikipedia: http//
Note. Include the retrieval date if the content cited is likely to be changed or updated.
Facebook Note

(American Red Cross, 2009)

American Red Cross. (2009, November 2). Red Cross workers in American Samoa: 2 stories [Facebook note]. Retrieved from

 (Obama, 2009)

Obama, B. [BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: [Tweet]. Retrieved from

Web Sources: Things to Remember

What to reference:
You should only reference what you can actually see on the page in question. If the web page is part of a section in a website then identify the website/organisation and the relevant section.
Italicise titles of reports and other documents that stand alone.  Do not italicise the titles of blog posts, online forum messages, blog comments, status updates, and so forth
Web page with no author:
If the author is not identified, start the reference with the document title. Cite in-text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.
Web page with no date:
If no year is available, use ‘n.d.’ (meaning “no date”), both in the in-text citation and end-text reference.
Entire website: If citing an entire website, rather than a particular document on the website, give the address in-text only. No reference list entry is required.
There is no full stop after the URL
Retrieval date:
Include the retrieval date if the content cited is likely to be changed or updated.

Web Documents

Referencing Web Documents.

Where you have downloaded or other wise accessed a document (pdf, html, etc.) from a website, reference the document in the format that most suits the type of document, e.g. Report, Brochure, then provide the retrieval statement (i.e. the url web address). 

This meets the general format of all APA references that provides details of who produced the work, when the work was produced, what is the work we are referring to and where did this work come from.

Website Reference





Website Reference

Learn how to format references for any material found on websites, including lecture notes or PowerPoint slides.

Blog Post Reference





Blog Post Reference

Learn how to format references for blog posts, including those published by authors using real names, user names, or a combination of both.

Social Media Reference





Social Media Reference

Learn how to format references for social media material, including pages and updates from Twitter, Facebook, and Google+.

Electronic Sources & Locator Information





Electronic Sources and Locator Information

Learn how to use the two types of electronic retrieval information found in references, digital object identifiers (DOIs) and uniform resource locators (URLs), including how to cite documents retrieved from research databases and websites.

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In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Nyoongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.