Skip to main content


Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Reports: General Reference Format

Technical and research reports, including those published by governments, task forces, and institutions, usually cover original research, but may not be peer reviewed. They are part of a body of literature sometimes referred to as the grey literature. Grey literature refers to both published and unpublished research material that is not available commercially.
General form for print report:
Author. (date). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher.
Where the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.
General form for online reports: 
Author. (date). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxx
If the publisher has not been identified as the author, then include the publisher as part of the retrieval statement: Retrieved from Agency name website: http://www.xxxx

Reports: Sample References

In-text Reference                         
End-text Reference
(reference lists require hanging indent)
Government report (Print): Individual author/s

(Dawkins, 1991)

Dawkins, J. (1991). Australia’s language: The Australian language andliteracy policy. Canberra, Australia: AGPS.
Government report (online): Corporate author

(Western Australia. Department of Health, 2017)

Western Australia. Department of Health. (2017). Review of safety and quality in the WA health system: A strategy for continuous improvement. Retrieved from
Government Report (online): Personal Authors (Stewart, Hedwards, Richards, Willis, & Higgins, 2014)

Stewart, J., Hedwards, B., Richards, K., Willis, M., & Higgins, D. (2014). Indigenous youth justice programs evaluation. Retrieved from Australian Institute of Criminology website:

Online report: Include the name of the publishing organisation in the retrieval information when the publisher is not identified as the author.


report available on
government agency
web site: referred to
more than once.
(Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2014)


Note: Use (ABS, 2014) in subsequent citations.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Young people with disability, 2012 (Cat. No.4427.0). Retrieved from
Note. Use the full author name Australian Bureau of Statistics in the end reference.
Research or university report (print)

(Froyland & Skeffington, 1993)

Froyland, I. B., & Skeffington, M. (1993). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander employment strategy: A five year plan for the police force of Western Australia. Joondalup, Australia: Edith Cowan University, Centre for Police Research.
Australian Bureau of Statistics: Online report

(Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009)

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009).  Australian national accounts: National income, expenditure and product  (Cat. No. 5206.0). Retrieved from
Standards Australia

(Standards Australia, 2003)

Standards Australia. (2003). Guide to residential pavements (AS3727-1993). Retrieved from

If a document is only available from a database. e.g. ERIC Document available from the ERIC database.

Murphy (2017)

Murphy, D. D. (2017). MANTLE: An investigation of the non-text elements included in social studies textbooks. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED574269)



Reports: Things to Remember

How do I reference government/technical reports, standards, codes of practice and guidance notes?

  • Format technical, research reports, annual reports and other government documents, as you would a book. Reports often have a number. If this is the case, include the report number, in parentheses, immediately after the title.
  • Many corporate reports have a corporate author (organization, government department) rather than a personal author. e.g. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Standards Australia.
  • Use this format for standards, codes of practice, guidance notes, MSDS, issue briefs, working papers, and other corporate documents, with the appropriate document number, if there is one, in parentheses.

  • For online reports, if the publisher has not been identified as the author, then include the publisher as part of the retrieval statement: Retrieved from Agency name website: http://www.xxxx

Edith Cowan University acknowledges and respects the Nyoongar people, who are the traditional custodians of the land upon which its campuses stand and its programs operate.
In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Nyoongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.