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Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Music Score & Liner Notes: Sample References

Source In-text References End-text Refernces
(reference lists require hanging indent)
Music scores (Sibelius, 2001)
Sibelius, J. (2001). Concerto in D minor, op. 47 [Score]. New York, NY: International Music Co.

Music liner notes

Note: If you wish to refer to the liner notes rather than a recording then use the following form.

(Obiera, 1998)

Obiera, P. (1998.) Lyricism and exotic colour. In The pearl fishers [CD liner notes]. Germany: Philips Classics.

Note: Use country of origin if city is not known

Music liner notes

Note: If the liner notes do not have a title, add a one or two word description and place this in square brackets to indicate that the material is a description not a title itself.

(Kimball, 1979)

Kimball, R. (1979). [Synopsis]. In Sweeney Todd: The demon barber of Fleet Street: A musical thriller [CD liner notes]. New York, NY: RCA.
Music recording: No composer

“Over the Waterfall” (Shocked, 1992, track 5)

Shocked, M. (1992). Over the waterfall. On Arkansas traveler [CD]. United States: PolyGram Music.

Musical Recordings

For more information on referencing music recordings, see Audiovisual Materials

Audiovisual Materials References





Audiovisual Material Reference

Learn how to format references for audiovisual material, including streaming videos (e.g., YouTube videos), television shows, movies, podcasts, music recordings, and artwork.


For more information:


Edith Cowan University acknowledges and respects the Nyoongar people, who are the traditional custodians of the land upon which its campuses stand and its programs operate.
In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Nyoongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.