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Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Lecture Notes & Slides: General Format

Some lecturers may require you to reference lecture material that they have compiled for your use and made available online. If this is so, then you can follow the format below.

However, when lecture notes are only available from a teacher via course management software, such as Blackboard, cite this as personal communication

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from University name, Faculty name, or School name website: http://xxxxxx

Lecture Notes & Slides: Sample References

Source In-text References   End-text References
(reference lists require hanging indent)
Lecture Notes
(Jones, 2016, p. 8)
Jones, E. A. (2016). Lecture 3: Recruitment and involvement of trainees [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from
PowerPoint Slides
(Brieger, 2005)
Brieger, W. (2005). Lecture 3: Recruitment and involvement of trainees [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health OpenCourseWare website:

(T. W. Willis, personal communication, August 10, 2012).

Note: Treat material from Blackboard as personal communication.

Note: As personal communications these are not available to the reader, they are not included in the reference list.

Lecture Notes & Slides: Things to Remember

Material only available on an intranet or Blackboard

Treat hand written notes and material from Blackboard, as personal communication. Material retrieved from an intranet, or from an on a course management system such as Blackboard, are not recoverable by other researchers. Cite in-text only. Do not include an end text reference.

Personal Communications

Personal Communications

Learn how to cite personal communications, including emails, classroom lectures, personal interviews, text messages, letters, and telephone conversations, as well as how to cite or discuss other types of interviews, such as recoverable interviews or research participant interviews that serve as a data source for your study.


© 2016 American Psychological Association.

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