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Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Journal Articles: General Reference Format

Print journal article
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), start page-end page.
Note: The volume number of the journal is italicised, but not the issue.                                                                                       
Electronic journal article with a DOI:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date). Title of article. Title of Journal, xx(x), pp-pp. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Note: The volume number of the journal is italicised, but not the issue.
Electronic journal article without a DOI:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), pp-pp. Retrieved from http://xxxx
Note: If the  journal article does not have a DOI, give the URL of the journal's home page.
In-text citation:
(Author, date)
Note: If citing a quotation, then include a page number or range of page numbers in-text: (Author, date, pp)

Journal Articles: Sample References

Source In-text Reference End-text Reference
(reference lists require hanging indent)
Journal article with a DOI (Smith & Li, 2010)
Smith, G. M., & Li, Q. (2010). The role of occupation in an integrated boycott model: A cross-regional study in China. Journal of Global Marketing, 23(2), 109-126. doi:10.1080/08911761003673421
Journal article with no
(Panoyan, Lee, Arar,
Abboud, & Arar, 2008)

Panoyan, L., Lee, S., Arar, R., Abboud, H., & Arar, N. (2008). The informed consent process in genetic family studies. Genomics, Society and Policy, 4(2), 11-20. Retrieved from

Note: Use the URL of the journal home page ( you may need to search the web for this information).

Journal article: Print

 (Giroux, 2000)

Giroux, H. (2000). Public pedagogy as cultural politics: Stuart Hall and the ‘crisis’ of culture. Cultural Studies, 14(2), 341-360.
Journal article: one author and a DOI

(Stultz, 2006)

Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure therapy and analytical therapy in trauma treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482-488. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482
Journal article: two authors and a DOI 

(Smith & Li, 2010)

Smith, G. M., & Li, Q. (2010). The role of occupation in an integrated boycott model: A cross-regional study in China. Journal of Global Marketing, 23(2),109-126. doi:10.1080/08911761003673421
Journal article: three to five authors and a DOI
(Borman, Hanson, Oppler, Pulakos, & White, 1993)
Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(3), 443-449. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.78.3.438
Journal article: six  authors and a URL

(Dietz et al., 2007)

Dietz et al. (2007)

Dietz, P. M., Williams, S. B., Callaghan, W. M., Bachman, D. J., Whitlock, E. P., &Hornbrook, M. C. (2007). Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(10), 1515-1520. Retrieved from
Journal article: seven authors and a DOI

(Delfabbro et al., 2006)

Delfabbro et al. (2006)

Delfabbro, P., Winefield, T., Trainor, S., Dollard, M., Anderson, S.,Metzer, J., & Hammarstrom, A. (2006). Peer and teacher bullying/victimization of South Australian secondary school students: Prevalence and psychosocial profiles.British Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(1), 71-90. doi:10.1348/000709904 X24645
Journal article: eight or more authors and a DOI

(White et al., 2008)

White, K. M., Robinson, N. G., Young, R. M., Anderson, P. J., Hyde, M. K.,Greenbank, S., . . . Baskerville, D. (2008). Testing an extended theoryofplanned behaviour to predict young people's sun safety in a high risk area. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13(3), 435-448. doi:10.1348/135910707X210004 
If there are eight or more authors, include the first six authors, followed by an ellipsis ( . . . ) then the last author's name.
Journal article available online ahead of publication

(Mihrshahi & Baur, 2018)

Mihrshahi, S., & Baur, L. A. (2018). What exposures in early life are risk factors for childhood obesity? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. Advance online publication.

If you are citing an advance release version of the article, insert Advance online publication before the doi if there is one or before the retrieval statement.

Journal article: Author anonymous (Anonymous, 2013)
Anonymous. (2013). Dealing with the unpredictable. The Clinical Teacher,10(6), 409–410. doi:10.1111/tct.12068
Journal article: Title includes the title of another work

(Rollin, 1990)

Rollin, L. (1990). The reproduction of mothering in “Charlotte’s web.” Children’s Literature, 18(1), 42-52. doi:10.1353/chl.0. 0201
Cochrane review (Shaw, O'Rourke, Del Mar, & Kenardy, 2005) Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2005(2), 1-74. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

(Wolff, 1995)

Wolff, S. (1995). The concept of resilience [Abstract]. Australian and New  Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 29(4), 565.

Journal Articles: Things to Remember

Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.
Italics and Capitalization The title of an article is not italicised and is written in sentence case. This means that only the first word of the title, subtitle and proper nouns are capitalised. However, the title of the journals or newspapers that the article is found in are italicised and written in title case which means that the main words are capitalised. The volume number of a journal is italicised, but not the issue.

Edith Cowan University acknowledges and respects the Nyoongar people, who are the traditional custodians of the land upon which its campuses stand and its programs operate.
In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Nyoongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.