What is Referencing?
Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas of other people that you have used in your own work and a way of uniquely identifying those sources. When you are writing an assignment, essay, or report you need to read from a wide range of sources, such as books, journal articles and reports. All sources, both published and unpublished must be referenced.
Referencing is an essential part of academic writing at university to:
Making a reference to these sources is called citing. You can cite in the text and at the end of your paper. References in-text are known as in-text citations.
References at the end of your paper are known as end text referencing or the reference list. This is where you reference the full publication details of each item according to the APA style.
There is a difference between a reference list and a bibliography. A reference list is a list of all the sources cited in your work, whereas a bibliography is a list of all the works that you used to research your topic, including the works you did not cite in your assignment.
APA is the referencing and writing style set by the American Psychological Association, and has been adopted across the majority of courses at ECU. It is an (author, date) style of referencing that consists of two parts:
Every in-text citation should have a corresponding citation in the end-text reference list. Every work in the end-text reference list should have a corresponding in-text citation. Personal communications are an exception to this rule.
The end-text reference list provides full citation details of a work based on the following four elements required for refererencing:
This means that all end-text reference list citations have the following format as their underlying structure:
Author, A. A. (year). Title. Source.
Place of Publication
For books published within the United States, follow the name of the city with the two official US postal service abbreviations. For all other publications, follow the name of the city with the name of the country. End with the name of the publisher. For example:
Sample in-text and end-text reference citations are outlined throughout this Library Guide and in the APA Style Central Database.
It is important to take note of the following general rules.
Authors can be individual people or a group (such as corporations, associations, government agencies).
If the surname includes a particle (e.g., de, de la, der, van, von), keep the author’s original capitalization even in reference list entries:
de Haan, A. D., Deković, M., & Prinzie, P. (2012). Longitudinal impact of parental and adolescent personality on parenting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 189–199. doi:10.1037/a0025254
However, capitalize the name if it (a) begins a sentence or (b) is the first word after a colon when what follows the colon is an independent clause.
See APA style blog entry: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2017/05/whats-in-a-name-two-part-surnames-in-apa-style.html
It is important to take note of the following general rules regarding quotations:
Short quotations of fewer than 40 words are incorporated within the text of your work, and are enclosed with “double quotation marks”.
Long quotations of 40 words or more are displayed in block format without quotation marks. Block format means that the quote should start on a new line and be indented from the left margin. Long (block) quotes should be double spaced.
Use one of two formatting options for the citation:
Provide the author’s, year and page number/s in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation. i.e. citation follows the full stop.
Provide the author and year in the narrative and include the page number/s in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation.
APA Style has special formatting rules for the titles of the sources you use in your paper, such as the titles of books, articles, book chapters, reports, and webpages.
The formatting of the titles of sources you use in your paper depends on two factors: (a) the independence of the source (stands alone vs. part of a greater whole) and (b) the location of the title (in the text of the paper vs. in the reference list entry).
Titles: whole works that stands alone (e.g. book, report): Use italics for all stand-alone titles, in text and end references.
e.g. In text (capitalize main words): Gone With the Wind
Reference list (sentence case): Gone with the wind
Titles: part of a whole work (e.g. chapter)
e.g. In text (inside double quotation marks, capitalize main words). “Longitudinal Impact of Parental and Adolescent Personality on Parenting”
Reference list (sentence case): Longitudinal impact of parental and adolescent personality on parenting
From the APA Style blog "How to Capitalize and Format Reference titles in APA Style" .
Secondary Sources: If you wish to use a quote from an author referred to in another source that you've read (secondary source), you only list the secondary source in the reference list. Name the original source in the text of your paper, and cite the secondary source in parentheses, for example: Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003).
Note: Use this type of reference sparingly, only if the original (primary) source is unavailable.
Citing specific parts of a source: to cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter or paragraph (for online material without page numbers). Use abbreviations for page/s (p. or pp.) and paragraph (para.), but not chapter, which should be written in full (Chapter), for example:
Chapter in an authored book, in text citation: (Baum, 2016, Chapter 3)
Note: If referencing a chapter from an edited book, use the format for a chapter from an edited book (see Book references).
Getting Started With APA Style
Learn the basics of APA Style, including how to format a manuscript, understand the form and function of common manuscript parts, organize and express your thoughts clearly and precisely, employ the mechanics of style, use graphic elements effectively, credit sources and acknowledge the contributions of others, and construct a comprehensive and reliable reference list.
Edith Cowan University acknowledges and respects the Nyoongar people, who are the traditional custodians of the land upon which its campuses stand and its programs operate.
In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Nyoongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.