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Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Books: General Reference Format

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of book. Location: Publisher.
Chapter in an edited book:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (#th ed., pp. xx-xx). Location: Publisher.
In-text citation:
(Author, date)
Note: If citing a quotation, then include a page number or range of page numbers in-text: (Author, date, page/s)

Books: Sample References

Source                                     In-text Reference                                    End-text Reference
(reference lists require hanging indent)
Book: One author (Ezzy, 2002)        
Ezzy, D. (2002). Qualitative analysis: Practice and innovation. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Book: Two authors
(Ethaugh & Rathus, 1995)

Note: Cite both authors every time. 

Etaugh, C., & Rathus, S. (1995). The world of children. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.    

Book: Three, four, or five authors

First mention:
(Quinlan, Bohle, & Lamm, 2010)
Subsequent mention:
(Quinlan et al., 2010)
Quinlan, M., Bohle, P., & Lamm, F. (2010). Managing occupational health and safety: A multidisciplinary approach (3rd ed.). South Yarra, Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.
Book: Six or seven authors

(Hoffnung et al., 2013)

Hoffnung, M., Hoffnung, R. J., Seifert, K. L., Burton Smith, R., Hine, A., Ward, L., & Pause, C. (2013). Lifespan development: A chronological approach (2nd Australasian ed.). Milton, Australia: Wiley.
Book: Eight or more authors
(Loxey et al., 2004)
Loxey, W., Toumbourou, J. W., Stockwell, T., Haines, B., Scott, K., Godfrey, C.,  . . . Williams, J. (2004). The prevention of substance use, risk and harm in Australia: A review of the evidence. Canberra, Australia: Department of  Health and Ageing. 
Note: List the first six authors, then an ellipsis (i.e. three spaced dots), then the last author in the reference.
Book: Corporate author (British Pharmacopoeia Commission, 2011)
British Pharmacopoeia Commission. (2011). British Pharmacopoeia . London, England: Stationery Office.
Book: Secondary sources (an author cites another author in a primary source)

Beaty (cited in Gibbs, 1981) asserts . . .

Gibbs, G. (1981). Teaching students to learn. Milton Keynes, England:Open University Press.
Note. The author of the work you are reading discusses or cites material that was originally published in another source. If the original (primary) source is not available, then reference the (secondary) source that you are reading. Refer to the original author in-text.
Book: No date

 (Southey, n.d.)

Southey, R. (n.d.). The life of Nelson. London, England: Blackie.
Book: Work in a language other than English

(Traversa, 1981)

Traversa, V. P. (1981). Parola e pensiero: Introduzionealla lingua Italiana moderna [Word and thought: An introduction to modern Italian language] (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Book: Translator

(Genet, 1966)

Genet, J. (1966). The balcony (2nd ed.). (B. Frechtman,Trans.). London,England: Faber.
Note: Name the translator or editor only in the end-text reference
Book: Author as publisher
(American Psychological  Association, 2001)
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: Author.
Book: Edited
(Cunningham & Turner,
Cunningham, S., & Turner, G. (Eds.). (2002). The media in Australia. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Book: Title includes the
title of another work

(Chitham, 1998) 

Chitham, E. (1998). The birth of “Wuthering Heights”: Emily Brontë at work. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan.
Book: Edition of a book
(Avis, 1999)
Avis, H. (1999). Drugs and life (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
Chapter in an edited book

(Mandler, 1993)

Mandler, G. (1993). Thought, memory, and learning: Effects of emotional stress. In L. Goldberger, & S. Bregnitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (2nd ed., pp. 40-55). New York, NY: The Free Press.
Electronic Book
(Prior & Glaser, 2006)
Prior, V., & Glaser, D. (2006). Understanding attachment and attachment disorders: Theory, evidence and practice. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Retrieved from
Note: Include the publisher location and name as well as the URL from which you downloaded the eBook.
Electronic Book
 (Towler & Sinnott, 2013)
Towler, G., & Sinnott, R. (2013). Chemical engineering design : Principles, practice and economics of plant and process design (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann. Retrieved from
Note: Provide the URL for the online eBook collection homepage.

Books: Things to Remember

Authors' names: Authors' names should always be Surname, Initial. Initial.  e.g. Smith, L. M.
The APA Style blog provides additional examples of variations in Author Names:
Italics: Only the book title should be in italics.  If you are referencing a chapter in a book, the title of the chapter should not be in italics.
Capitalization: In your reference list the first letter of the first word of a title should be capitalized as should the first letter of the first word of any subtitle.  Everything else should be in lower case unless it is a proper noun or an abbreviation that is always written in capitals.
Edition statement:
Author, A.A. & Author, B.B. (Date). Title of book (2nd ed.). Location: Publisher.
Only include the edition statement (number followed by ed. in brackets after the title), if the book is a 2nd or later edition.
Publication details: For books published within the United States, follow the name of the city with the two official US postal service abbreviations. For all other publications, follow the name of the city with the name of the country. End with the name of the publisher.
  • New York, NY: Harper & Row.
  • Washington, DC: Author
  • Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • London, England: Wildwood House.
  • Melbourne, Australia: Puffin.
  • Cambridge, England: Author

Note: If the author and the publisher are the same, write "Author" as the name of the publisher.

DOI:  Some electronic books are assigned a DOI, which should also be included in your reference if given. See examples on Reference Works page.

In-text citations (2 or more works):
  • Order two or more authors cited within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list. Separate references with a semicolon;
    • (Cooper & Carver, 2012; Douziech, Hellweg, & Verones, 2016; Pandey, Shukla, & Habibi, 2015)
  • Order two or more works by the same author by the year of publication.
    • (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, 2013)
  • Identify works by the same author (or same two or more authors), with the same publication date, by the suffixes a, b, c, etc. after the year. Repeat the year each time. 
    • (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010a, 2010b, 2010c)

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In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Nyoongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.