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Referencing: Audiovisual Media

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Audiovisual Materials: General Reference Format

Audiovisual media include motion pictures; audio or television broadcasts including podcasts; static objects such as maps, artwork, or photos; and streaming videos.

Music recording:
Author, A. (Date of copyright).Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.].
Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date.)

Video recording / film / motion picture:
Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio

YouTube video:
Author, A. A.  [Screen name].  (Yea, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxx 

Audiovisual Materials: Sample References

Source             In- text Reference

End-text Reference
(reference lists require hanging indent)

Artwork (Chagall, 1912) 
Chagall, M. (1912). Calvary [Painting]. Retrieved from
CD-ROM (Smart, 2005)
Smart, F. (2005). Travelling around Australia [CD]. Applecross, Australia: CD Group.
Film or motion picture: Two contributors (Williams & Bell, 1998)
Williams, S. (Producer), & Bell, A. J. W. (Director). (1998). Lost for words [Video]. UK: Yorkshire Television.
Film or motion picture: Three, four or five contributors

(Deeley, York, & Scott, 1984)

 Deeley, M., & York, B. (Producers), & Scott, R. (Director). (1984). Bladerunner  [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers.
Note: When the city is not known, just give the country.
Music: Liner notes

(Obiera, 1998)

Obiera, P. (1998). “Lyricism and exotic colour.” In The pearl fishers (pp. 4-5) [CD liner notes]. Germany: Philips Classics. 
Note: When the city is not known, just give the country.
Music: Recording

(Shocked, 1992, track 5)

Shocked, M. (1992). Over the waterfall. On Arkansas traveler [CD]. New York, NY: PolyGram Music.
Music: Score

(Sibelius, 2001)

Sibelius, J. (2001). Concerto in D minor, op. 47 [Score]. NewYork, NY: International  Music Co.
Podcast (With producer)

(Van Nuys, 2012)

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2012, September 25). The brain in trauma and PTSD with Robert Scaer [Audio podcast]. Retrieved    
Podcast (With producer)

 (Saunders, 2007)

Saunders, A. (Producer). (2007, November 17). The architecture of diplomacy [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
Podcast (Producer not known)

Szoke, H. (2012).

Szoke, S. (2012, September 12). The anti-racism strategy [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Radio: Broadcast

(Woolf, 2008)

Woolf, R. (Presenter). (2008, December 10). Drive [Radio broadcast]. Perth, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Radio: Series

(Saunders, 2008)

Saunders, A. (Presenter). (2008). The philosopher’s zone [Radio series]. Sydney, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Radio: Episode for a series

(Genner, 2008)

Genner, G. (Reporter). (2008). Generation Y and the financial crisis [Radio series episode]. In G. Genner (Producer), Background briefing. Sydney, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Streaming video: Database

(American Psychological Association, 2012)

American Psychological Association (Producer). (2012). Rational emotive behaviour therapy for coping with divorce transition (Session 1 of 6)   [Streaming video]. Retrieved from PsycTherapy database.

Streaming video: YouTube

(Massey University, 2010)

Massey University. (2010, May 17). The research proposal. [Video file]. Retrieved from

Television: Broadcast

(Crystal, 1993)

Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11).The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Public Broadcasting Service.

Television: Series

(Miller, 1989)

Miller, R. (Producer). (1989). The mind [Television series]. New York, NY: WNET. 

Television: Episode for a series

(Hall & Bender, 1991)

Hall, B. (Writer), & Bender, J. (Director). (1991). The rules of the game [Television series episode]. In J. Sander (Producer), I’ll fly away. New York, NY: New York Broadcasting Company.
Video recording

(Williams & Bell, 1998)

Williams, S. (Producer), & Bell, A. J. W. (Director). (1998). Lost for words [Video]. UK: Yorkshire Television.
Note: When the city is not known, just give the country.

Video: iTunes [Video podcast]

(Dunning, 2011)

Dunning, B. (Producer). (2011, January 12). inFact: Conspiracy theories [Video podcast]. Retrieved from
Note: After the author, include the contribution of the person in parentheses, when you know it.

Video: YouTube [Video file]

(Leddy, 2013

Leddy, J. F. (2013). Using PsycINFO: A quick introduction [Video file]. Retrieved from

Video: YouTube [Video file]

(Dunning, 2011)

Dunning, B. [volleybrian]. (2011, September 15). Here be dragons [Videofile]. Retrieved from
Note: After the author, include the contribution of the person in parentheses, when you know it. Include screen name, if there is one.

Audiovisual Materials: Things to Remember

List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution, if you know it.

When audiovisual materials have no named author; use an abbreviated form of the title in both in-text and end-text references. The end-text reference should contain a description of the medium and include the roles of the various participants involved in the production (e.g., director, producer) if this information is available.

For an episode from a television or radio series, use the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list the script writer and director in the author position and the producer in the editor position.

Audiovisual Materials References





Audiovisual Material Reference

Learn how to format references for audiovisual material, including streaming videos (e.g., YouTube videos), television shows, movies, podcasts, music recordings, and artwork.


For more information:


Edith Cowan University acknowledges and respects the Nyoongar people, who are the traditional custodians of the land upon which its campuses stand and its programs operate.
In particular ECU pays its respects to the Elders, past and present, of the Nyoongar people, and embrace their culture, wisdom and knowledge.