APA is the referencing and writing style set by the American Psychological Association, and has been adopted across the majority of courses at ECU. It is an (author, date) style of referencing that consists of two parts:
In-text citations include the details of the author/s (usually just the surname), and the year of publication in the (author, date) format. You must always include an in-text citation when you:
Every in-text citation should have a corresponding citation in the end-text reference list. Every work in the end-text reference list should have a corresponding in-text citation. Personal communications are an exception to this rule.
The end-text reference list provides full citation details of a work based on the following four elements:
This means that all end-text reference list citations have the following format as their underlying structure:
Author, A. A. (year). Title. Source.
It is important to take note of the following general rules regarding quotations.
All direct quotations from a work should be reproduced word for word, keeping the original spelling and internal punctuation (even where it is incorrect).
Sample in-text and end-text reference citations are outlined throughout this Library Guide and in the APA Style Central Database.
It is important to take note of the following general rules.
Authors can be individual people or a group (such as corporations, associations, government agencies).
Place of Publication
For books published within the United States, follow the name of the city with the two official US postal service abbreviations. For all other publications, follow the name of the city with the name of the country. End with the name of the publisher. For example:
Getting Started With APA Style
Learn the basics of APA Style, including how to format a manuscript, understand the form and function of common manuscript parts, organize and express your thoughts clearly and precisely, employ the mechanics of style, use graphic elements effectively, credit sources and acknowledge the contributions of others, and construct a comprehensive and reliable reference list.