Sample in-text and end-text reference citations are outlined throughout this Library Guide and in the APA Style Central Database.
It is important to take note of the following general rules.
All direct quotations from a work should be reproduced word for word, keeping the original spelling and internal punctuation (even where it is incorrect).
- Short quotations of fewer than 40 words are incorporated within the text of your work, and are enclosed with “double quotation marks”.
- Long quotations of 40 words or more are displayed in block format without quotation marks. Block format means that the quote should start on a new line and be indented from the left margin.
- Direct quotations must be followed by a reference to the page number or specific location of the quote in the original work in the following format (author, date, page number).
- If you are adding information to a quote, adding emphasis, correcting errors, or clarifying ambiguous place names, identify this by using square brackets [ ].
- If you are omitting parts of a quote, use an ellipsis (. . .) to indicate that you have removed material. Use the ellipsis (. . .) at the beginning or end of a quotation if you are not quoting a complete sentence.
Authors can be individual people or a group (such as corporations, associations, government agencies).
- For individual people, the information you provide in a citation about an author depends upon the number of authors.
- Single author: When citing a single author in an in-text citation, insert the surname of the author.
- Two authors: Where there are two authors, both surnames should be used:
- Davidson and Porter (2012) demonstrated that . . .
- It has been demonstrated that . . . (Davidson & Porter, 2012).
- Three, four, or five authors: Where there are three, four, or five authors, all surnames should be used the first time the in-text reference appears in the document. For all subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.”
- First mention:
- Smith, Grierson, Malthus, and Nicholson (2015) found . . .
- According to evidence . . . (Smith, Grierson, Malthus, & Nicholson, 2015).
- Subsequent mention:
- Smith et al. (2015) suggest . . .
- The study concluded . . . (Smith et al., 2015).
- Six to seven authors: Where there are six or seven authors, use the first surname only followed by et al.
- According to Abercrombe et al. (2008) . . .
- It was shown that . . . (Abercrombe et al., 2008).
- Eight or more authors: Where there are eight or more authors, use the first surname only followed by et al. in the in-text reference. For the End-text reference, include the first six authors, followed by and ellipsis ( . . . ) then the last author’s name.
- According to Owen et al. (2014) . . .
- It was shown that . . . (Owen et al., 2014).
- End Text:
- Owen, A., Dufes, C., Moscatelli, D., Mayes, E., Lovell, J., Katti, K., . . . Stone, V. (2014). The application of nanotechnology in medicine: Treatment and diagnostics. Nanomedicine, 9(9), 1291-1294. doi:10.2217/NNM.14.93
- For a group, the name of the group is written in full the first time they occur in an in-text citation.
- If you wish to abbreviate names, write the name in full the first time that it occurs, and place the abbreviated form in brackets. In subsequent citations, you can then just use the abbreviation.
- First mention:
- (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2014).
- Subsequent mentions:
- More than one work by the same author in the same year: If there is more than one work by the same author, the end-text references are to be listed in date order. If the author has more than one work in the one year, use lower case letters of the alphabet.
- Two authors with the same surname: If two authors being cited in text share the same surname, use their initials in all citations:
e.g. This was confirmed by J.J. Smith (2012), who.....
R.A. Smith (2009) considered.....
Place of Publication
For books published within the United States, follow the name of the city with the two official US postal service abbreviations. For all other publications, follow the name of the city with the name of the country. End with the name of the publisher. For example:
- New York, NY: Harper & Row.
- Washington, DC: Author
- Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- London, England: Wildwood House.
- Melbourne, Australia: Puffin.
- Cambridge, England: Author