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Referencing: Psychology

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Psychology reference examples

Source                                     In-text Reference End-text Reference
(reference lists require hanging indent)

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Using acronym


First mention: introduce the acronym

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) does not provide treatment guidelines for any given disorders.

Subsequent mentions (use DSM-5)

The DSM-5 is intended to be used by clinical, or appropriately qualified medical professionals. (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.


(Online: Each section has a DOI. There is no DOI for the entire book).

(American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Cautionary statement for forensic use of DSM-5. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.744053


(Hodson, Rush, & MacInnis, 2010)

Hodson, G., Rush, J., & MacInnis, C. C. (2010). Cavalier Humour Beliefs Scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. doi:10.1037/t00810-000


(American Psychological Association [APA], 2012)

American Psychological Association (Producer). (2012). Rational emotive behaviour therapy for coping with divorce transition (Session 1 of 6) [Streaming video]. Retrieved from PsycTHERAPY database.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

(Shaw, O'Rourke, Del Mar, & Kenardy, 2005)

Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2005(2), 1-74. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

(Langdon & Preeble, 2008)

Langdon, S. W., & Preble, W. (2008). The relationship between levels of perceived respect and bullying in 5th through 12th graders. Adolescence, 43(171), 485-503. Retrieved from

(Gregor, 1891)

Gregor, W. (1891). The Scotch fisher child. Folklore, 2(1), 73-86. Retrieved from