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Referencing: Music Score

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Examples showing how to reference music scores

Source                                     In-text                                        End-text      
Music scores (Sibelius, 2001)
Sibelius, J. (2001). Concerto in D minor, op. 47 [Score]. New York,
NY: International Music Co.

Music liner notes


If you wish to refer to the liner notes rather than a recording then use the following form.

(Obiera, 1998)

Obiera, P. (1998.) Lyricism and exotic colour. In The pearl fishers [CD
liner notes]. Germany: Philips Classics.


Note. Use country of origin if city is not known

Music liner notes

If the liner notes do not have a title, add a one or two word description and place this in square brackets to indicate that the material is a description not a title itself.

(Kimball, 1979)

Kimball, R. (1979). [Synopsis]. In Sweeney Todd: The demon barber of
Fleet Street: A musical thriller [CD liner notes]. New York, NY: RCA.
Music recording: No composer

“Over the Waterfall” (Shocked, 1992, track 5)

Shocked, M. (1992). Over the waterfall. On Arkansas traveler [CD].
United States: PolyGram Music.