Skip to main content

Referencing: Music Score & Liner Notes

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

Music Score & Liner Notes: Sample References

Source In-text References End-text Refernces
(reference lists require hanging indent)
Music scores (Sibelius, 2001)
Sibelius, J. (2001). Concerto in D minor, op. 47 [Score]. New York, NY: International Music Co.

Music liner notes

Note: If you wish to refer to the liner notes rather than a recording then use the following form.

(Obiera, 1998)

Obiera, P. (1998.) Lyricism and exotic colour. In The pearl fishers [CD liner notes]. Germany: Philips Classics.

Note: Use country of origin if city is not known

Music liner notes

Note: If the liner notes do not have a title, add a one or two word description and place this in square brackets to indicate that the material is a description not a title itself.

(Kimball, 1979)

Kimball, R. (1979). [Synopsis]. In Sweeney Todd: The demon barber of Fleet Street: A musical thriller [CD liner notes]. New York, NY: RCA.
Music recording: No composer

“Over the Waterfall” (Shocked, 1992, track 5)

Shocked, M. (1992). Over the waterfall. On Arkansas traveler [CD]. United States: PolyGram Music.

Musical Recordings

For more information on referencing music recordings, see Audiovisual Materials