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Referencing: Lecture (PPT slides)

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

General format for end-text references

Some lecturers may require you to reference lecture material that they have compiled for your use and made available online. If this is so, then you can follow the format below.

However, treat material from Blackboard as personal communication.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from University name, Faculty name, or School name website:


Examples showing how to reference lecture notes or PowerPoint online

Source                                     In-text                                        End-text      
Lecture notes
(Panoyan, Lee, Arar,
Abboud, & Arar, 2008, p. 12)
Oppenheim, A. (2011). Lecture 14: Demonstration of amplitude of
modulation [Lecture notes]. Retrieved from MIT OpenCourseWare, Signals and Systems website:

This is a commonly used technique within the therapeutic setting (T. W. Willis, personal communication, August 10, 2002).

Treat material from Blackboard as personal communication.

Personal communication is not entered in the end- text reference list.

Extra hints

Material only available on an intranet or Blackboard

(Electronic References, p. 31)

Treat hand written notes and material from Blackboard, as personal communication. Material retrieved from an intranet, or from an on a course management system such as Blackboard, are not recoverable by other researchers. Cite in-text only. Do not include an end text reference.