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Referencing: Audiovisual media

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

General format for end-text references

Audiovisual media include motion pictures; audio or television broadcasts including podcasts; static objects such as maps, artwork, or photos; and streaming videos.

Music recording:
Author, A. (Date of copyright).Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.].
Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date.)

Video recording / film / motion picture:
Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio

YouTube video:
Author, A. A.  [Screen name].  (Yea, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxx 

Examples showing how to reference audiovisual media

Source                                     In-text                                        End-text      
Advertisement: Television (Pine-o-Kleen, 2007)
 Pine-o-Kleen “Forest Fresh” disinfectant [Advertisement]. (c. 2005).
 Screened 12 February 2007, TVW Channel 7, Perth, Australia.
Artwork (Chagall, 1912) 
Chagall, M. (1912). Calvary [Painting]. Retrieved
CD-ROM (Smart, 2005)
Smart, F. (2005). Travelling around Australia [CD]. Applecross,
Australia: CD Group.
Computer software (“Computer Literacy for Nurses,” 1985)
Computer Literacy for Nurses [Computer software]. (1985).
Edwardsville, KS:  Medi-sim. 


(Mastery, 2006)
 Mastery [Exhibition]. (2006). Hong Kong. Glass Gallery.

Exhibition catalogue

(Gordon, 2008)
Gordon, K. (2008). Systema naturae: New  works by Kevin Gordon
[Brochure]. Perth, Australia: FORM Gallery. 
Film or motion picture (Early Mathematical Experiences, 1976)
Early mathematical experiences [Film]. (1976). State of play series,
7. London, England: BBC.
Film or motion picture: Two contributors (Williams & Bell, 1998)
Williams, S. (Producer), & Bell, A. J. W. (Director). (1998). Lost for
words [Video]. UK: Yorkshire Television.
Film or motion picture: Three, four or five contributors

(Deeley, York, & Scott, 1984)

 Deeley, M., & York, B. (Producers), & Scott, R. (Director). (1984).
Bladerunner  [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers.
  When the city is not known, just give the country.
Music: Liner notes

(Obiera, 1998)

Obiera, P. (1998). “Lyricism and exotic colour.” In The pearl fishers (pp.
4-5) [CD liner notes]. Germany: Philips Classics. 
When the city is not known, just give the country.
Music: Recording

(Shocked, 1992, track 5)

Shocked, M. (1992). Over the waterfall. On Arkansas traveler [CD]. New
York, NY: PolyGram Music.
Music: Score

(Sibelius, 2001)

Sibelius, J. (2001). Concerto in D minor, op. 47 [Score]. NewYork, NY:
International  Music Co.
Podcast (With producer)

(Van Nuys, 2012)

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2012, September 25). The brain in trauma
and PTSD with Robert Scaer [Audio podcast]. Retrieved    
Podcast (With producer)

 (Saunders, 2007)

Saunders, A. (Producer). (2007, November 17). The architecture of
diplomacy [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
Podcast (Producer not known)

Szoke, H. (2012).

Szoke, S. (2012, September 12). The anti-racism strategy [Audio podcast].
Retrieved from   

Radio: Broadcast

(Woolf, 2008)

Woolf, R. (Presenter). (2008, December 10). Drive [Radio broadcast].
Perth, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Radio: Series

(Saunders, 2008)

Saunders, A. (Presenter). (2008). The philosopher’s zone [Radio series].
Sydney, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Radio: Episode for a series

(Genner, 2008)

Genner, G. (Reporter). (2008). Generation Y and the financial crisis
[Radio series episode]. In G. Genner (Producer), Background briefing. Sydney, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Streaming video: Database

(American Psychological Association, 2012)

American Psychological Association (Producer). (2012). Rational emotive
behaviour therapy for coping with divorce transition (Session 1 of 6)  
[Streaming video]. Retrieved from PsycTherapy database.

Streaming video: YouTube

(Massey University, 2010)

Massey University. (2010, May 17). The research proposal. [Video
file]. Retrieved from

Television: Broadcast

(Crystal, 1993)

Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11).The MacNeil/Lehrer
news hour [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Public Broadcasting Service.

Television: Series

(Miller, 1991)

Miller, R. (Producer). (1989). The mind [Television series]. New York,

Television: Episode for a series

(Hall & Bender, 1991)

Hall, B. (Writer), & Bender, J. (Director). (1991). The rules of the game
[Television series episode]. In J. Sander (Producer), I’ll fly away. New York, NY: New York Broadcasting Company.
Video recording

(Williams & Bell, 1998)

Williams, S. (Producer), & Bell, A. J. W. (Director). (1998). Lost for words
[Video]. UK: Yorkshire Television.
Use country of origin and studio. Include city if you know it.
Video recording: No author

(Decisions, Decisions, 1976)

 Decisions, decisions: How to reach them, how to make them happen
[Video]. (1976). London, England: Video Arts.

Video: iTunes [Video podcast]

(Dunning, 2011)

Dunning, B. (Producer). (2011, January 12). inFact: Conspiracy theories
[Video podcast]. Retrieved from
Note. After the author, include the contribution of the person in parentheses, when you know it.

Video: YouTube [Video file]

(Leddy, 2013

Leddy, J. F. (2013). Using PsycINFO: A quick introduction [Video file].
Retrieved from

 Video: YouTube [Video file]

(Dunning, 2011)

Dunning, B. [volleybrian]. (2011, September 15). Here be dragons
[Videofile]. Retrieved from v=752V173e31o&list=UUG9DGRmeyQZAlcCD4JGMilQ
Note. After the author, include the contribution of the person in parentheses, when you know it. Include screen name, if there is one.

Things to remember when referencing audiovisual media

List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution, if you know it.

When audiovisual materials have no named author; use an abbreviated form of the title in both in-text and end-text references. The end-text reference should contain a description of the medium and include the roles of the various participants involved in the production (e.g., director, producer) if this information is available. (APA 6th, pp. 209-210; Electronic References, p. 26)

For an episode from a television or radio series, use the same format as for a chapter in a book, but list the script writer and director in the author position and the producer in the editor position.