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Referencing: Home

Guide to APA 6th referencing style used at ECU

ECU Referencing Guide (PDF)

Referencing - Getting started

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association



This Library Guide aims to cover commonly asked referencing questions. Examples are grouped by reference type under the tabs for easy access.

Referencing is a formal, systematic way of acknowledging sources that you have used in your assignments or written essays and a way of formatting references so that they can be easily traced. The referencing style used at ECU is the APA style, 6th ed. 2010.


How to Avoid Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism

Learn how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism, including how to identify plagiarism, understand its risks and consequences, cite sources properly, and develop sound writing practices.


© 2016 American Psychological Association.

How do I avoid plagiarism?

Following are some tips for avoiding plagiarism. Further information is available from the  ECU Plagiarism Academic Tip Sheet

Take careful notes of where you find your information and always acknowledge the work of others, whether it be:

  • selections of text
  • quotations
  • graphics
  • tables
  • figures
  • graphs or diagrams

If you:

  • regularly make photocopies from books or journal articles
  • print out articles from databases, web pages
  • scan graphs, diagrams, photographs, artwork

remember to note down the details you will need to cite the information in your assignment. The minimal information to record should include:

  • Who is responsible for the work eg. the author, designer
  • The name of the work eg. a title
  • When it was produced eg. the publishing date
  • Where you accessed the information, for material from the web, or publisher details for print

Plagiarism Checklist (from ECU Plagiarism Academic Tip Sheet):

  • Have you enclosed all direct quotes in quotation marks and supplied the in-text reference? 
  • Have you supplied in-text references for all ideas that you’ve paraphrased?
  • Have you supplied in-text references for sources you have consulted to support your ideas?
  • Have you included all sources you’ve cited in your reference list?
  • Have you correctly formatted all your references?


APA Style News

APA Style website